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Monday, 20 January 2014

The Golden History - The World’s Great Philosopher




Written by : Ajisaka Lingga Bagaskara
Greeks became a country that produced many great philosopher that affected many modern thought. Socrates (469-399 BCE), Plato (427-347 BCE), and Aristotles (384-322 BCE) were some of the world’s great philosopher. Socrates was a brilliant philosopher that was reputed to be “the Father of Western Philosopher”. Socrates believe that humans live for a purpose and the terms of “right” or “false” were on the important role on deciding the relationship between humans and it’s environtment or human with the other human. His theory said that the purpose of an ideal government was for creating many wise individual that would lead for the goodness of it’s citizen.
Plato, in the other hands, wrote the book “The Republic”. In this books Plato was thingking about “a perfect country where an ethic, a wisdom anda reason stood in the balance.” Plato was more struggling on the founding of a wiseful rather than receiving a dogmatism.
Also Aristitoles, a philosopher that also learned a physician science and applying a systematics methods to studying the relationship between human and the other aspect in the world arround us. Aristotles was the teacher of Alexander the Great. The thingking of Aristotles then were united with the Thomas Acquinas’s thought (1225-1274). 

SOCRATES


Socrates 470/469 BC–399 BC was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher. Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, he is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes. Many would claim that Plato's dialogues are the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity.

Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics, and it is this Platonic Socrates who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method, or elenchus. The latter remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy in which a series of questions is asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand. Plato's Socrates also made important and lasting contributions to the field of epistemology, and the influence of his ideas and approach remains a strong foundation for much western philosophy that followed.

PLATO


Plato 424/423 BC–348/347 BC was a philosopher in Classical Greece. He was also a mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his most-famous student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the foundations of Western philosophy and science. Alfred North Whitehead once noted: "the safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato."

Plato's sophistication as a writer is evident in his Socratic dialogues; thirty-six dialogues and thirteen letters have been ascribed to him, although 15–18 of them have been contested. Plato's writings have been published in several fashions; this has led to several conventions regarding the naming and referencing of Plato's texts. Plato's dialogues have been used to teach a range of subjects, including philosophy, logic, ethics, rhetoric, religion and mathematics. Plato is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. His writings related to the Theory of Forms, or Platonic ideals, are basis for Platonism. 

ARISTOTLES


 
Aristotle 384–322 BCE was a Greek philosopher born in Stagirus in 384 BCE. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle was a child and he lived under a guardian's care. At the age of eighteen, he joined Plato’s Academy in Athens and remained until the age of thirty-seven, around 347 BCE. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. Aristotle's writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing ethics, aesthetics, logic, science, politics, and metaphysics. Shortly after Plato died Aristotle left Athens, and at the request of Philip of Macedonia he became a tutor for Alexander in 356–323 BCE. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, “Aristotle was the first genuine scientist in history. . . . Every scientist is in his debt.”

Aristotle achieved merit through teaching Alexander the Great. This distinction allowed him many opportunities, including an abundance of supplies. He established a library in the Lyceum which aided in the production of many of his hundreds of books. The fact that Aristotle was a pupil of Plato contributed to his former views of Platonism, but following Plato’s death, Aristotle immersed himself in empirical studies and shifted from Platonism to empiricism . He believed all peoples' concepts and all of their knowledge was ultimately based on perception. Aristotle’s views on natural sciences, including philosophy of the mind, body, sensory experience, memory, and biology represent the groundwork underlying many of his works.

Aristotle's views on the physical sciences profoundly shaped medieval scholarship, and their influence extended well into the Renaissance, although they were ultimately replaced by Newtonian physics. In the zoological sciences, some of his observations were confirmed to be accurate only in the 19th century. His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, which was incorporated in the late 19th century into modern formal logic.

In metaphysics, Aristotelianism had a profound influence on philosophical and theological thinking in the Islamic and Jewish traditions in the Middle Ages, and it continues to influence Christian theology, especially the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. Aristotle was well known among medieval Muslim intellectuals and revered as 'المعلم الأول' – "The First Teacher".

His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics. All aspects of Aristotle's philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues (Cicero described his literary style as "a river of gold"), it is thought that the majority of his writings are now lost and only about one-third of the original works have survived.


HIPPOCRATES

The same one with the other philosophy that was made above the foundation that created by Socrates, Plato, and Aristotles, the world of medicinery also born from the golden age of Greeks. Hippocrates (460-377 BCE) was a Greeks doctor that made a concept that when someone cure the others, a persons should “consider the nature characteristic of a human in the general, and from one individu and all of the sickness’s character.” In other words, a doctor should learning the relationship between all human’s body mechanism structure rather than only focus on specific symptom.
Hippocrates 460–370 BCE, was an ancient Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is referred to as the father of western medicine in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine. This intellectual school revolutionized medicine in ancient Greece, establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields that it had traditionally been associated with (notably theurgy and philosophy), thus establishing medicine as a profession.

However, the achievements of the writers of the Corpus, the practitioners of Hippocratic medicine, and the actions of Hippocrates himself were often commingled; thus very little is known about what Hippocrates actually thought, wrote, and did. Hippocrates is commonly portrayed as the paragon of the ancient physician, credited with coining the Hippocratic Oath, still relevant and in use today. He is also credited with greatly advancing the systematic study of clinical medicine, summing up the medical knowledge of previous schools, and prescribing practices for physicians through the Hippocratic Corpus and other works.
The Hippocrates thought were one step ahead than on it’s epoch. In that periods the health problem were handled by shaman, an indigenous medical pratitioner, and a paranormal. Hippocrates wrote some medical ethics rule. Hippocrates realized that the broken parts should be unified again to make a normal healing. Scientifically, the Hippocrates work were very limited. However, Hippocrates left many inventation that should be continued in the next generation. The Hippocrates oath, that was written on his book, still became a base foundation of relationship between and doctor and it’s patient, the doctors duty to it’s patient, and the doctors duty to cure anyone, without seeing his status in social.

Sources -->
*An Indonesians books, “The Golden History” written by Nurul Awaluddin, published by elmatera-publishing.
*Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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