Sunday, 15 December 2013

Kingdom of Kutai (Kerajaan Kutai) - English Version

A Yupa with inscription in the National Museum of Indonesia in Jakarta.

An ancient yūpa of Mulawarman, king of Kutai.

A map location about the Kingdom of Kutai.

Written by : Ajisaka Lingga Bagaskara

A. Kutai Martadipura

The Indonesian historical epoch begins with a written heritage in the area of ​​Kutai. Kutai, or Dayak Kutai, is a historic region in East Kalimantan in Indonesia on Borneo and also name of Dayak people on the region with a language of the same name and their historic states. Today the name is preserved in the names of three regencies in East Kalimantan, the Kutai Kartanegara Regency, the West Kutai Regency and the East Kutai Regency. The major river of the region was and is the Mahakam River. In this place have been found a seven pieces of an inscribed stone or Yupa. Yupa is an inscribed stone monument created as a memorial sacrifice of some animals. All Yupa arranged in the form of poetry that uses Pallawa writing in Sanskrit language.
Those Yupa that founded in the Kutai didn’t had a year’s number. Therefore, the experts determine age of the Yupa by examining the forms of the letters and the language used. On the basis of the research, it is known that around the year 400 AD or the beginning of the 5th century had even established a kingdom, the Kingdom of Kutai. Until now Kutai regarded as the oldest kingdom in Indonesia.

The Kingdom of Kutai was founded by Kundunga. Judging from its name, Kundunga had not been exposed to the influence of Hinduism. Kundunga’s name is the original name of the local population. Maybe once he is a natiev chief which is very influential. Kundunga had a son named Aswawarman. When Aswawarman ascended the throne, he was crowned as the king of the way through a typical of Hindu. Coronation of the king estimated by Vratyastoma, namely the appointment of a high caste into (the nobility one). King Aswawarman referred to as Wangsakarta, mean as the founder of the kingdom, meaning, that Aswawarman is the first king of the royal family that have been cultured into Indiaan. Since Aswawarman power in Kutai, Hindu culture began to enter the royal family and the influence of culture and life style of its people.

 Aswawarman had three sons who like the sacred fire. However, the most famous son was and it was a leader was Mulawarman. In a Yupa, Mulawarman had been explained that he was a noble and leading king, who has ever given alms in the form of 20,000 cows to the brahmins in the holy land of Waprakeswara (a holy land left to worshipping Lord Shiva). This monument was created to honor the good of the brahmins King Mulawarman. Based on this information, allegedly Kutai’s kingdom was a kingdom that is quite rich and prosperous.

Mulawarman is stated to have conquered his neighbours in battle. He is also said to have increased the land of Kutai by a local ritual called Asvaredjwa. This ritual required a horse released to his land. The footsteps of the freely roaming horse were taken as evidence that this land belonged to Kutai. Mulawarman was also known for his tribute of gold to his God. The name of his kingdom is not mentioned on the inscriptions nor do any other documents in other countries relate to a kingdom at this time in this region. It is not known what became of the kingdom after these pillars had been erected. It may be possible that the name Kutai, as in Tuñjung Kute of the 1365 Javanese Majapahit poem Nāgarakṛtāgama is as ancient and reflects the original name used a thousand years earlier.

B. Kutai Kartanegara

Around the end of the 13th century the kingdom of Kutai Kartanegara was established in the region of Tepian Batu or Kutai Lama. The first known ruler is Aji Batara Agung Dewa Sakti, who is thought to have ruled from 1300 to 1325.[1] Aji Pangeran Sinum Panji Mendapa, who ruled 1635–1650, was able to conquer the kingdom of Kutai Martadipura and merged the two realms thus Kutai Kartanegara Ing Martadipura.

In 1667 the Dutch V.O.C. attacked Makassar on the island of Sulawesi leading to the downfall of the Bugis Kingdom of Gowa. Some of the Bugis under the leadership of Lamohang Daeng Mangkona or Pua Ado I immigrated to Kutai on neighbouring Borneo (Kalimantan) and the ruler of Kutai allowed them to settle in Kampung Melantai around the Karang Mumus River, now known as Kampung Selili. This settlement eventually developed into the modern town of Samarinda.

Islam took hold in the region since the 17th century (most of the Bugis were Muslims) and Aji Muhammad Idris, ruling 1732–1739?, was the first ruler to have an Islamic name.
After a civil war Aji Imbut, after finally becoming the ruler as Aji Muhammad Muslihuddin in 1780, moved the capital in 1782 from Pemarangan to Tepian Pandan. The name of the capital city eventually developed from Tangga Arung to its present form of Tenggarong.

In 1844 the Dutch defeated the Sultan Aji Muhammad Salehudin, forcing him into exile, and took direct control of Kutai.

The Japanese invaded the region in 1942 and acknowledged a "Kooti Kingdom", that was a subject of the Tenno. In 1945 Kutai joined, along with its neighbours, into the East Kalimantan federation.
In 1949 Kutai finally became part of the United Republic of Indonesia.
The Kutai Language

The traditional language of the region is referred to as Tanggarong Kutai Malay and is considered a local Malay language, such as Banjarese and Bukit Malay to the south, Kota Bangun Kutai Malay to the west, Berau Malay to the north and others more distant. As such Tanggarong Kutai belongs to the large Austronesian family of languages.

sources :
*An Indonesian book, "Buku "Kronik Sejarah", terbitan Yudhistira."
*Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


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